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Indus Valley Civilization: History, Facts, and Characteristics

Indus Valley Civilization 2022

The Indus valley civilization or the Harappan civilization was among the four major periods of the History of India. It was the Bronze Age civilization in the northern regions of South Asia. It was a major period in the Ancient history of India. This civilization lasted from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE and the growth of this civilization was seen between 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. With three early civilizations, ancient Egypt, Mesopotamian, and Indus valley civilization, the Indus valley civilization was one of three early civilizations of Near East and South Asia. The most widespread civilization of that period was the Indus valley civilization, which cover the areas of Pakistan, Afghanistan, and western and northwestern India.

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Characteristics of Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus valley civilization is named after the Indus river system. Alluvial plains are found in the Indus river system, where the Indus valley civilization was identified and excavated. Animals like sheep, dogs, goats, humped cattle buffalo, and elephants were domesticated by the people of the Indus valley civilization. The capital cities were Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. The Harappa is the first site to be excavated in the 1920s and after that its types. The civilization was found to be very planned. Some of the findings were-

  1. Baked brick houses
  2. Elaborated drainage system
  3. Water supply system
  4. Cluster of large non-residential buildings
  5. New techniques of handicrafts and metallurgy.

Interesting facts about Indus Valley Civilization

Indus valley civilization has the cities which were the world’s first planned cities. The cities were designed in a gird and rectangular pattern with streets crossing in right-angles. The architectural planning of cities in the Indus valley civilization is believed to be older than the period of Hippodamus of Miletus. The cities have well-planned houses as well as well-planned drainage systems. All the places excavated till now are found to be in this pattern. The bricks that were used to make the houses were baked and of similar dimensions. The roads found in the cities are 10.5m wide which depicts the presence of market places in the ancient period of Indus valley civilization. The cities were planned and had channels running through them for the flow of drainage water. The two most prominent cities of the Indus valley civilization are Mohenjodaro and Harappa. Both of these cities are believed to have a population of 40,000-50,000 people. Most ancient cities had a population of 10,000 but this proves that the Indus Valley civilization was huge.

Indus Valley Civilization

Facts about the Indus valley civilization

  1. The population was over 5 million in the Indus valley civilization.
  2. The major population was either traders or artisans. They were mostly involved in Artistic activities.
  3. In 1999, a board with stone symbols was found which is believed to be the first signboard in the world.
  4. People of the Indus valley civilization were hygienic. There were well-planned drainage systems, dustbins made of bricks, and a great bath.
  5. Archaeologists have found that there are no temples in Indus valley but the people used to worship ox, and trees like peepal.

The economy of the Indus Valley Civilization

Indus valley civilization was based on agricultural practices. Trading and commerce flourished in this period. In the Mesopotamian scribes (Sumerian), it frequently refers to a place called Meluhha. They were the prominent trading partners of Sumerians. Meluhha imported ebony, sesame oil, timber, and luxury items like Lapis Lazuli in huge quantities, it is believed that there is a huge probability that Meluhha is the Indus valley civilization. The people of the Indus valley civilization were the first cultivators of cotton. The world’s first cotton traces are found here and it is also believed that people here were the first who spun and weaved cotton. The activities like hunting, fishing, clay modeling, and bullfighting existed during the Indus valley civilization. People are food like rice, wheat, barley, milk, fish, meat, and fruits.

FAQs related to the Indus valley civilization

1. Which were the seven cities in the Indus valley civilization?
Ans. Seven cities of the Indus valley civilization were Mohenjodaro, Kalibangan, Chanhudaro, Lothal, Surkotada, Banawali, and Dholavira.

2. Where did the Indus valley civilization flourish?
Ans. The Indus valley civilization flourished over the Indus River banks.

3. What was the economy of the Indus valley civilization?
Ans. The economy of the Indus valley civilization depended on trading. Their major business was import and export.

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