The Nobel Prize 2019 were announced recently in 6 different fields viz. Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Economic Sciences. The Nobel Prize distribution was first done on 1901. The winners will receive a full cash prize, valued this year at 9-million kronor ($918,000), a gold medal and a diploma.
Chronicle of the Nobel Prize:
On November 27, 1895, Alfred Nobel signed his 3rd and last will at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris in which he specifically designated the institutions responsible for the prizes he wished to be established: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for the Nobel Prize in Physics and Chemistry, Karolinska Institutet for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the Swedish Academy for the Nobel Prize in Literature, and a Committee of five persons to be elected by the Norwegian Parliament (Storting) for the Nobel Peace Prize. In 1968, the Sveriges Riksbank established the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
The Nobel Foundation, a private institution established in 1900, has the ultimate responsibility for fulfilling the intentions in Alfred Nobel’s will. Each year, thousands of members of academies, university professors, scientists, previous Nobel Laureates and members of parliamentary assemblies and others, are asked to submit candidates for the Nobel Prizes for the coming year.
After receiving all nominations, the Nobel Committees of the 4 prize awarding institutions are responsible for the selection of the candidates.
Complete list of the winners of Nobel Prize 2019:
|1||Physiology or Medicine||William G. Kaelin (USA)||for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability||Harvard Medical School|
|Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe (United Kingdom)||University of Oxford|
|Gregg L. Semenza (USA)||Johns Hopkins University|
|2||Physics||James Peebles (Canada)||for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology||Princeton University|
|Michel Mayor (Switzerland)||for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star||University of Geneva|
|Didier Queloz (Switzerland)||University of Geneva|
|3||Chemistry||John B. Goodenough (Germany)||for the development of lithium-ion batteries||University of Texas|
|M. Stanley Whittingham (United Kingdom)||Binghamton University|
|Akira Yoshino (Japan)||Asahi Kasei Corporation|
|4||Literature (2018)||Olga Tokarczuk (Poland)||for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life|
|Literature (2019)||Peter Handke (Austria)||for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience|
|5||Peace||Abiy Ahmed Ali (Ethiopia)||for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation||Prime Minister of Ethiopia|
|6||Economics||Abhijit Banerjee (India)||for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Esther Duflo (France)||Massachusetts Institute of Technology|
|Michael Kremer (USA)||Harvard University|