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Escalation in Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: Azerbaijan Launches Military Operation

Azerbaijan’s military operation in Nagorno-Karabakh has ignited concerns of a renewed conflict in the region. This long-standing dispute revolves around an ethnic Armenian region within Azerbaijani territory. The recent attacks have escalated tensions and raised international alarm.

Azerbaijan’s Offensive:

  • Azerbaijan has initiated a military operation backed by artillery strikes in Nagorno-Karabakh.
  • They have declared their intent to continue until Armenian forces surrender.
  • The operation was triggered by landmine incidents, attributed to Armenian saboteurs, resulting in casualties.

Historical Context:


  • Nagorno-Karabakh, an ethnically Armenian region, is internationally recognized as Azerbaijani territory.
  • Separatist Armenian authorities control part of the region, considering it their ancestral homeland.
  • The conflict has been a persistent flashpoint since the Soviet Union’s dissolution.

Azerbaijan’s Objectives:

  • Azerbaijan’s defense ministry aims to disarm Armenian forces, secure their withdrawal from Azerbaijani territories, and neutralize their military infrastructure.
  • They have reported the capture of over 60 military posts and destruction of numerous military vehicles.

Armenian Response:

  • Armenia’s foreign ministry condemned Azerbaijan’s actions as “large-scale aggression” and accused them of pursuing ethnic cleansing.
  • Casualty figures remain unverified, but a separatist Armenian human rights official reported 25 casualties, including civilians.

International Involvement:

  • Armenia called on UN Security Council members for assistance and urged Russian peacekeepers to intervene.
  • Protests in Yerevan demanded Prime Minister Pashinyan’s resignation, reflecting dissatisfaction with his handling of the crisis.

Russian Mediation:

  • Russia, seeking to maintain influence in the region amidst Turkish support for Azerbaijan, contacted both parties for renewed negotiations.
  • Moscow’s peacekeeping troops, deployed after the 2020 ceasefire, have not prevented recent Azerbaijani military actions.

Western Response:

  • The United States is engaged in crisis diplomacy to address the escalating situation, with Secretary of State Antony Blinken likely to be involved.
  • The European Union, France, and Germany condemned Azerbaijan’s military action and called for a return to negotiations on the region’s future.
  • EU’s foreign policy chief emphasized the need to prevent the displacement of the local population.


  • Located in the South Caucasus region.
  • Capital: Baku.
  • Official language: Azerbaijani.
  • Major religion: Islam (predominantly Shia).
  • Notable for its oil and gas reserves, contributing to its economy.



  • Located in the South Caucasus region.
  • Capital: Yerevan.
  • Official language: Armenian.
  • Major religion: Christianity (Armenian Apostolic Church).
  • Known for its rich history and as the first Christian nation.

Both countries have a complex history, including a long-standing conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh, a region internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan but controlled by ethnic Armenians.

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