India has announced the definition of Green Hydrogen. The Green Hydrogen Standard for India sets a criterion of 2 kg CO2 equivalent per kg H2 as a 12-month average emission threshold. It is a significant move for the progress of the National Green Hydrogen Mission. The guidelines established by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Government of India, delineate the emission benchmarks that must be fulfilled for hydrogen production to qualify as ‘Green’, signifying its origin from renewable sources.
The Ministry of New & Renewable Energy has characterized Green Hydrogen as having a well-to-gate emission (encompassing processes like water treatment, electrolysis, gas purification, hydrogen drying, and compression) that does not exceed 2 kg CO2 equivalent per kg H2.
The scope of the definition encompasses both electrolysis-based and biomass-based hydrogen production methods. The notification explicitly states that the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy will define a comprehensive methodology for measuring, reporting, monitoring, on-site verification, and certifying green hydrogen and its derivatives. Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE), Ministry of Power shall be the Nodal Authority for accreditation of agencies for the monitoring, verification and certification for Green Hydrogen production projects.
- It is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic and highly combustible gaseous substance.
- Green hydrogen stands as an energy resource that emerges via water electrolysis using renewable sources like wind, solar, and hydroelectric power.
- This form of hydrogen plays a key factor in transitioning towards a carbon-neutral economy while aiding in climate change mitigation.
- The produced hydrogen can be stored and employed as fuel across transportation, industry, and agricultural sectors.
- Other types of Hydrogen: Hydrogen can also be categorized as ‘grey’ and ‘blue’.
- Grey hydrogen is manufactured from fossil fuels like coal and gas, constituting around 95% of total production in South Asia.
- Blue hydrogen is generated utilizing electricity produced by combusting fossil fuels; however, it incorporates technologies to capture and prevent the carbon emissions from being released into the atmosphere.
Driving Factors for Green Hydrogen Development
Several compelling reasons underline the imperative to develop green hydrogen:
- Energy Transition: The shift away from fossil fuels gains momentum, and green hydrogen offers a clean energy carrier to replace traditional sources across sectors.
- Energy Storage: Hydrogen acts as a reservoir for excess renewable energy, effectively addressing the intermittency of solar and wind power.
- Decarbonizing Industries: Hard-to-abate sectors like heavy industry and chemicals find solace in green hydrogen as a clean feedstock and energy source.
- Energy Security: Diversification through green hydrogen reduces dependence on finite fossil fuels, enhancing energy security.
- Global Market Potential: The surging interest in sustainable energy presents a lucrative market for green hydrogen technologies.
- Technological Innovation: Ongoing research drives innovation, leading to efficient production methods and cost reduction.
Meeting International Commitments: Countries committed to net-zero emissions find an ally in green hydrogen, aiding their clean energy targets.
Green hydrogen finds applications across various sectors, unlocking new possibilities for a sustainable future:
- Energy Storage: Aiding grid stability by storing excess renewable energy during low-demand periods.
- Power Generation: Fuelling gas turbines and fuel cells to provide backup power during peak demand.
- Residential and Commercial Heating: Transitioning to hydrogen for space and water heating, reducing reliance on fossil fuels.
- Decentralized Power Generation: Empowering remote areas with local hydrogen-based power generation.
- Aviation and Shipping: Decarbonizing hard-to-abate sectors through synthetic aviation and marine fuels.
- Hydrogen Injection: Blending hydrogen with natural gas in pipelines to reduce carbon intensity.
- Hydrogen Fuelling Stations: Expanding hydrogen-powered vehicles through dedicated refueling infrastructure.
- Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): Integrating CCS technologies for cleaner hydrogen production.
- Agriculture: Enabling sustainable practices by producing fertilizers and powering machinery with green hydrogen.
As India embraces the Green Hydrogen Standard, the journey towards a cleaner and sustainable energy landscape gains momentum. Green hydrogen’s potential to reshape industries, reduce carbon footprints, and enhance energy security positions it as a pivotal player in the quest for a greener tomorrow.