India has some of the highest mountain ranges and mountain roads in the world. India is a land of huge natural diversity. From snow-capped mountains to dry deserts and sandy coastlines, the natural landscape is as diverse as the culture and tradition of the nation. There are many mountain ranges in India, including the longest and oldest mountain ranges in the world. All these mountain ranges in India have a profound impact on the weather conditions, lifestyle, religious beliefs, and economic development of the country.
The 7 major mountain ranges in India:
- Himalayan Mountain Ranges
- Aravalli Range
- Western Ghats
- Eastern Ghats
- Satpura and Vindhya
- Karakoram and Pir Panjal
Here’s a list of the seven prominent Mountain Ranges of India.
1. Himalayan Mountain Ranges
- Himalaya, India’s highest mountain range, literally translates to “abode of snow” in Sanskrit. The Himalayan Mountain Range is India’s youngest range, formed by the collision of two tectonic plates.
- The Himalayan Mountain Range has nearly every highest peak in the world, with more than 100 peaks rising beyond 7200 metres on average. Mount Everest, at 8848 metres, is the highest point on the planet. It is located in Nepal’s Himalayan Range.
- The Himalayas also serves as the source of several major river systems, including the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Indus. The Himalayas also play a vital role in regulating the climate in northern India by preventing cold air from entering the Indian mainland in the winter season.
2. Aravalli Range
- The Aravalli Range, India’s oldest mountain range, is also the world’s oldest mountain range. The range width varies from 10km to 100km. Aravalli translates to a ‘line of peaks’ in the local language and stretches 800 kilometres across the Indian states of Delhi, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat.
- Guru Shikhar is the highest point in the Aravalli Range, rising 1722 metres above sea level. This range is well-known for its various tourist attractions, including Mount Abu, Rajasthan’s lone hill station. The rivers that run through this range are the Banas, Luni, and Sabarmati.
3. The Western Ghats
- The Western Ghats are a 1600m long mountain range in south India that stretches from Gujarat to Kanyakumari. This mountain range is also known as the “Sahyadri Mountains.” It includes the Nilgiris, Anaimalai, and Cardomom mountain ranges.
- The Tapti River originates in Gujarat and flows parallel to the Arabian Sea, passing through Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu. The highest peak in this range is Anaimalai Hills in Kerala, which has an elevation of 2695 metres.
- The Western Ghats are a UNESCO World Heritage Site with a rich bio-diversity. Jog falls, Ooty and Bandipur National Park are popular tourist destinations. The significant rivers in this area include the Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri.
4. The Eastern Ghats
- The Eastern Ghats are a mountain range that runs parallel to the Bay of Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian Peninsula. West Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu are all part of the range.
- The tallest mountain in this region is Arma Konda, which stands at 1680 metres. The Eastern Ghats play an important part in Indian agriculture because four major rivers in India, the Godavari, Mahanadi, Krishna, and Kaveri, flow into the Bay of Bengal via the Eastern Ghats.
- They provide a hugely fertile region suited for crops such as rice. These Ghats are older than the Western Ghats and contain important pilgrimage sites such as Tirumala Venkateshwara Temple in Andhra Pradesh. Vishakhapatnam and Bhubaneswar are prominent Eastern Ghats cities.
5. Satpura and Vindhya
- The Satpura and Vindhaya Range lies in central India and both these ranges run parallel to each other. Out of these two, the Satpura range is higher in length and is the source of rivers like Narmada and Tapti.
- Both Satpura and Vindhaya are mainly situated in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra with some extensions to Gujarat, Chattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh.
- Kalumar Peak (752m) and Duphgarh Peak (1350m) are the highest points in Vindhaya and Satpura range. These ranges are famous for a large no of tourist spots like Panchmarhi Hill Station, Kanha National Park, Amarkantak and Omkareshwar temple.
6. Eastern Mountain Range or Purvanchal
- The Purvanchal Range can be considered an extension of the Himalayas in the eastern portion of India because the creation process of this range is quite similar to that of the Himalayas, despite the fact that the range is not as high as the Himalayas.
- The Purvanchal Range, also known as the Eastern Mountain Range, is divided into three sections: the Patkai-Bum Hill, the Garo-Khasi-Jaintia Hills, and the Lushai Hill (Mizo Hill). Because of these hills, Mawsynram in Meghalaya is the wettest place on Earth, and it is located in Khasi Hill. This range encompasses all of India’s eastern states, known colloquially as the “Seven Sisters.”
7. Karakoram and Pir Panjal Range
- The Karakoram and Pir Panjal ranges are located to the north and south of the Himalayan Range, respectively. A large portion of the Karakoram Range falls under the disputed jurisdiction of India and Pakistan, and both countries have declared a claim to it.
- The Karakoram Range, which stretches for 500 kilometres, is home to many of the world’s tallest peaks. K2, the world’s second-highest mountain at 8,611 metres, is located in the Karakoram Range.
- Except for the Polar Regions, the Karakoram possesses the most glaciers. This range contains the world’s second and third largest glaciers, the Siachen Glacier and the Biafo Glacier. This mountain range is also known as the Lower Himalayas. This range is traversed by rivers such as the Ravi, Chenab, and Jhelum. Gulmarg is a very important hill station.