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Arunachal Pradesh: History, Geographical and Interesting Facts

Arunachal Pradesh: About

Arunachal Pradesh is the extreme north-eastern part of India, and it shares its international borders with Bhutan, China, Myanmar, and national borders with Nagaland, and Assam. Arunachal Pradesh is one of the seven sisters of India, and it is the largest state out of the seven sisters. The capital of Arunachal Pradesh is Itanagar. It was formed from the erstwhile North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA) region and was declared as a state on 20th February 1987.

Arunachal Pradesh: History

  • The Monpa Kingdom of Monyul controlled the north-western parts of Arunachal Pradesh from 500 BCE- 600 CE. The remaining parts of the state were under the control of the Chutia Kings of Assam.
  • The British Indian government made agreements with the indigenous people of the Himalayas of Northeastern India during 1912-1913 to form the North-East Frontier Tracts.
  • These tracts were divided into three sections: Ballipara Frontier Tract, Lakhimpur Frontier Tract, and Sadiya Frontier Tract.
  • During 1913-1914, the representatives of the de facto independent state of Tibet and Britain met in India to define the borders of ‘Outer Tibet’. Sir Henry McMahon drew the 550 miles McMahon Line between British India and Tibet, but the Chinese representative did not concur. The Simla Accord denies other benefits to China while it declines to assent to the Accord.
  • The Chinese position was that Tibet was not Independent of China and could not sign treaties, so the Accord was invalid, like the Anglo-Chinese and Anglo-Russian conventions.
  • The North-East Frontier Agency was remanded Arunachal Pradesh by Bibhabasu Das Shastri, the director of Research, and K.A.A. Raja, the Chief Commissioner of Arunachal Pradesh on 20th January 1972.

Arunachal Pradesh: Geographical Facts

  • Arunachal Pradesh is covered with deep valleys, high plateaus, and peaks of the great Himalayas.
  • It is located between 26.28°N and 29.30°N latitude and 91.20°E and 97.30°E longitude and it covers an area of 83,743 Km Square.
  • The state is covered with elevated peaks and valleys; hence the climate depends on the elevation. Low-altitude areas have humid subtropical climates and high-altitude areas have subtropical highland climates and alpine climates.
  • The annual rainfall in Arunachal Pradesh is 2000 to 5000 millimeters or 79 to 197 inches.
  • Arunachal Pradesh is rich in flora and fauna. 750 bird species and 200 species of mammals are found in the state.
  • The major type of animal species found in Arunachal Pradesh are tigers, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Asian Elephants, Barking deer, Sloth bears, Mithuna, Gaur, and Giant Squirrel, Leopard Cat, and Chital deer.

Arunachal Pradesh: Things you need to know

  1. The Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh is Pema Khandu and the Governor is B.D. Mishra.
  2. The state animal of Arunachal Pradesh is Mithun, the state bird is the Great Hornbill, and the state flower is Retusa.
  3. The languages spoken in Arunachal Pradesh are English, Nyishi, Bokar, Tagin, Adi, and Apatani.
  4. There are two divisions of Arunachal Pradesh East and West, each of the divisions is headed by Divisional Commissioner and 25 districts each administered by a Deputy Commissioner.
  5. The state does not have its high court, it falls under the high court of Guwahati, Assam.

Arunachal Pradesh: Economy

  • People of Arunachal Pradesh are involved majorly in Agricultural activities.
  • People practice Jhum Cultivation which means shifting agriculture. The land is cleared by burning the vegetation and is cultivated for several years, then it is abandoned for years till the land gains its fertility again.
  • Rice, corn, millets, and buckwheat are the major crops grown by the shifting agriculture method.
  • Some other crops grown in Arunachal Pradesh include potatoes, ginger, sugarcane, oilseeds, and vegetables.


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