Himachal Pradesh: About
Himachal Pradesh is located in the northern part of India and it is situated in the western Himalayas. It is one of the three mountain states in India featuring extreme landscapes, several peaks, and river systems. It shares its borders with Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Uttarakhand, and Uttar Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh is generally known as Dev Bhoomi or Land of God and Veer Bhoomi which means Land of Braves in India. The majority of the population in Himachal Pradesh lives in rural areas and practices agriculture, horticulture, hydropower, and tourism for contributing to the economy of the state. In 2016, the state was declared an open-defecation-free state. It is also known as the least corrupt state in India.
Himachal Pradesh: History
- People from the Indus valley civilization used to live near the foothills of the modern state of Himachal Pradesh between 2250 and 1750 BCE.
- During the prehistoric era tribes such as the Koli, Hali, Sahi, Dhaugri, Dasa, Khasa, Kanaura, and Kirata were believed to live here.
- The original habitats during the Indus valley civilization were Kols and Mundas followed by Bhotas and Kiratas.
- Several small republics known as Janapada during the Vedic period were later conquered by the Gupta Empire.
- King Harshavardhana had the power of this region later and he divided it into several local powers headed by Chieftains, and some Rajput Principalities.
- This region enjoyed a large degree of Independence and was invaded by the Delhi Sultanate several times.
- At the beginning of the 11th century, Mahmud Ghaznavi took over Kangra. Later, Timur and Sikander Lodi conquered the lower hills of the state and captured several forts.
- After the Independence, the Chief Commissioner’s Province of Himachal Pradesh was organized on 15th April 1948 as a result of the integration of 28 petty princely states in the promontories of the western Himalayas.
- Under the Himachal Pradesh order, 1948 under sections 3 and 4 of the Extra-Province Jurisdiction Act 1947, these states were known as the Simla Hills States and four Punjab southern hill states.
- On July 1, 1954 state of Bilaspur was merged into Himachal Pradesh under the Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur Act 1954.
- When the constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950, Himachal became a part C state.
- On 1 November 1956, Himachal Pradesh became a union territory.
- The state of Himachal Pradesh Act was passed by the Parliament on 18th December 1970 and the new state came into being on 25th January 1971.
Himachal Pradesh: Things you need to know
- The capital of Himachal Pradesh is Shimla.
- The Chief Minister of Himachal Pradesh is Jairam Thakur and the Governor is Rajendra Vishwanath Arlekar.
- The population of Himachal Pradesh is 6,864,602 (2012).
- The area covered by the state is 21,495 sq miles.
- Hindi is the official language in Himachal Pradesh.
- The state flower of Himachal Pradesh is Pink Rhododendron; the state animal is snow leopards and the state tree is the Deodar cedar.
- Himachal Pradesh is situated between 30°22’N and 33°12’N latitude and 75°47’E and 79°04’E longitude.