Historical battles of India
In the history of India, there are several notable battles, starting from ancient times to modern times. These battles and wars have influenced India and led to many changes throughout these years. Here is a list of some important battles and wars in India.
Battle of the Ten Kings or Dasarajna Yuddha
Battle of the ten kings is mentioned in the Rig Vedas. This battle is older than the Ramayana. King Sudas was the 16th generation of Emperor Bharata. The battle of the ten kings was fought between the Vedic kingdoms of Bharatas and Trtsu-Bharata Sudas in the 14th Century BCE. The battle took place near River Ravi (Parushni River) in Punjab. The battle leads to the victory of Trtsu-Bharatas.
Battle of the Hydaspes
The Battle of the Hydaspes took place near the river banks of Hydaspes, now known as the Jhelum River in Punjab of Pakistan. The battle was fought between Alexander the Great and the King Porus, in 326 BCE. Alexander defeated Achaemenid Empire’s forces and set his campaign to extend his empire in India. Alexander the Great won the battle of Hydaspes.
The Seleucid-Mauryan war was fought between Chandragupta Maurya and Seleucus I Nicator. The battle was fought in 305 and 303 BCE. The battle started in 305 BCE when Chandragupta tried to retake the Indian Satrapies by leading a series of Campaigns. Seleucus I Nicator fought against Chandragupta to defend his territories but later, the two sides made peace in 303 BCE, and the outcome of the battle was Chandragupta was allowed to control the areas left by Alexander the Great when he returned to the west.
Battle of Pullalur
The battle of Pullalur was fought between Chalukya King Pulakesin II and Pallava King Mahendravarman. The rapid expansion of the Chalukya Empire resulted in the seizure of the Vishnukundin Kingdom. The Vishnukundin Kingdom was the property of Pallavas of Kanchi, an emerging power in the 6th century AD. This resulted in the anger of Pallavas and led to the Battle of Pullalur. The Chalukya King Pulakesin won the battle, and the war took place between 618-619 CE.
First Battle of Tarain
The first battle of Tarain between Mohammed Ghori (leader of the Turkish Clan) and Prithviraj Chauhan (Leader of the Rajput Clan) was in 1191. By 1149, Ghurids emerged victoriously and manage to sack the city of Ghazni. The Ghurids Empire was led by Mohammed Ghori and Ghiyas al-Din. They wanted to expand their empire in the eastern part of India. Mohammed Gori sent a notice to the court of Prithviraj Chauhan for settlement. The settlement included some conditions. This condition said that all the citizens have to convert to Islam and accept the Suzerainty of Ghurids, all these conditions work refused by Prithviraj Chauhan. This led to the first battle of Tarain and was one of the major battles during the Arab and Turkish invasion of India. Mohammad Ghauri entered the kingdom of Chalukyas in 1178 but was defeated by the Chalukyas army. The battle of Tarain was won by Prithviraj Chauhan.
The second battle of Tarain
The second battle of Tarain was fought between Muhammad Ghori and Chahamana King Prithviraj Chauhan. Prithviraj had defeated the Ghurids at the first battle of Tarain in 1191. The second battle of Tarain occurred in the same field as the first one. The second battle of Tarain was a victory for Muhammad Ghori in the year 1192 in Taraori, Haryana.
First Battle of Panipat
The first battle of Panipat was between Babur and the Lodi Kingdom on 21st April 1526. Babar wanted to conquer India after he reach the banks of Chenab in 1519. Babur wanted to expand his empire in Punjab to fulfill his ancestor Timur’s legacy. During this time North India was ruled by Ibrahim Lodi. The Mughal army consisted of 13000 to 15000 men. The battle of Panipat was a victory for Babur.
Battle of Chausa
The battle of Chausa was fought between Mughal emperor Humayun and Sher Shah Suri in 1539. The battle was fought on 26th June at Chausa which is now Bihar. The battle of Chausa was a notable military engagement between the Mughal emperor Humayun and the Afghan Sher Shah Suri. The Mughal emperor Humayun lost in the battle of Chausa and Sher Shah Suri crowned himself Farid al-Din Sher shah.
Second Battle of Panipat
The second battle of Panipat was fought between Akbar and Hem Chandra Vikramaditya in the year 1556 on 5th November. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya himself attack the Mughals and was losing the battle. He was seriously injured in the battle and was captured by the Mughals. Bairam Khan asked Akbar to behead Hem Chandra but he refused to touch Hem Chandra’s head with his sword. Bairam Khan himself beheaded Hem Chandra’s head and send it to Kabul to hang it outside the Delhi Darwaja. This led to the victory of the Mughals in the second battle of Panipat.
Third battle of Panipat
The third battle of Panipat was fought between the Maratha Empire and the Durrani Afghan Empire in 1761 on 14th January. The third battle of Panipat was a victory for Ahmed Shah Abdali who was the leader of the Afghan force. The Maratha leaders Vishwa Rao and Sadashivrao were shot dead on the battlefield.
FAQs related to Battles and Wars in India
1. What are the important battles in Indian history?
Ans. Some of the important battles and wars in the history of India are the Battle of Panipat, Battle of Tarain, Battle of Chausa, and many more.
2. How did the wars and battles influence India’s culture?
Ans. The wars and battles lead to many changes in the culture of India, which led to the change in the names of the states, the partition of the countries, and changes in kings and powers.