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What is Global South?

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The Ukraine war has led to the increased recognition of the term “Global South” as many influential countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have shown hesitation in aligning themselves with NATO.

The term ‘Global South’

The term “Global South” refers to a diverse group of countries located primarily in the southern hemisphere, encompassing Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Pacific region. It represents a confluence of political, geopolitical, and economic resemblances among nations. Historically, these nations have faced numerous challenges, including poverty, political instability, and underdevelopment. However, in recent decades, the Global South has emerged as a formidable force, driving economic growth, promoting social development, and demanding greater representation on the global stage.

Origin & Background

The term “Global South” originated in 1969 when political activist Carl Oglesby introduced it. Its popularity grew significantly following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, which marked the conclusion of the “Second World” era. Prior to this, developing nations were often labeled as the “Third World,” a term coined by Alfred Sauvy in 1952. However, the term “Third World” became intertwined with notions of poverty, instability, and negative stereotypes perpetuated by West.

Significance of Global South

The PwC report titled ‘The long view: how will the global economic order change by 2050‘ provides forecasts for potential GDP growth until 2050 for 32 of the world’s largest economies. These economies collectively represent approximately 85% of the global GDP. According to the report, it is projected that the world economy could double its size by 2042. The main driving force behind this growth will be the emerging market and developing countries. Specifically, the E7 economies (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, and Turkey) are expected to grow at an average annual rate of around 3.5% over the next 34 years, whereas the advanced G7 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the UK, and the US) are anticipated to grow at a much lower rate of around 1.6%.

India’s initiatives for Global South

Addressing Geopolitical Fragmentation

To mitigate the detrimental effects of geopolitical tensions on development priorities, India emphasizes the urgent need for fundamental reforms in major international organizations. These reforms should aim to provide greater representation and voice to the concerns of the developing world, reflecting the realities of the 21st century. Particularly, a comprehensive reform of the United Nations Security Council and the Bretton Woods institutions is crucial to ensure equitable decision-making and inclusivity on global matters.

Establishing a Global-South Center of Excellence

Recognizing the value of learning from each other’s development experiences, India will establish a “Global-South Center of Excellence.” This institution will serve as a platform for research on development solutions and best practices from member countries, which can be scaled and implemented in other parts of the Global South. Leveraging India’s expertise in digital public goods, space technology, nuclear energy, and other domains, the center will facilitate knowledge-sharing to empower developing nations in their pursuit of sustainable development.

Sharing Expertise through the Global-South Science & Technology Initiative

India has made remarkable advancements in space technology, nuclear energy, and other scientific domains. To ensure other developing nations can benefit from this progress, India will launch the “Global-South Science & Technology Initiative.” This initiative will facilitate the sharing of expertise, research findings, and technological advancements among developing countries. By fostering collaboration, this initiative will promote technological self-reliance and accelerate development in areas crucial to the well-being of humanity.

Connecting Diplomatic Networks: Global-South Young Diplomats Forum

Recognizing the importance of diplomatic collaboration and knowledge exchange, India proposes the establishment of the “Global-South Young Diplomats Forum.” This platform will bring together young diplomats from developing countries to foster dialogue, share experiences, and enhance diplomatic cooperation. By nurturing future leaders in international relations, this forum will strengthen the diplomatic voice of the Global South and promote collective action on shared challenges.

Promoting Education: Global-South Scholarships

Education is a crucial driver of development and empowerment. In line with this belief, India will institute “Global-South Scholarships” for students from developing countries to pursue higher education in India. These scholarships will provide opportunities for talented individuals from the Global South to access quality education, fostering human capital development and contributing to the overall prosperity and well-being of the region.

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