Maharashtra is situated in the western peninsular region of India. Maharashtra is the second most populous state in India. It was founded on the first May 1960 by splitting the bilingual Bombay state which existed since 1956, into majority Marathi-speaking Maharashtra and Gujarati-speaking Gujarat. Maharashtra is the third largest state in India by area which covers an area of 3,07,713 km square. It shares its border with Arabian Sea Karnataka Telangana Chhattisgarh Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh and with Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu. The capital of Maharashtra is Mumbai which is also known as India’s financial and commercial capital. Maharashtra has the largest economy in India with a GDSP of ₹31.97 trillion.
- Several Late Harappan or Chalcolithic sites have been discovered in Maharashtra. The largest settlement discovered of the culture is at Daimabad.
- Maharashtra was under the Maurya Empire in the third and fourth centuries BCE. Satavahana dynasty took over the rule of Maharashtra in 230 BCE and ruled for over 400 years.
- The Chalukya dynasty ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries CE, and the two prominent rulers were Pulakeshin II and Vikramaditya II.
- In the early 14th century, the Yadava dynasty, ruled most of present-day Maharashtra.
- Muhammad bin Tughluq conquered parts of the Deccan and temporarily shifted the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad in Maharashtra.
- In the 17th century, Shahaji Bhosale, a local general who served the Ahmadnagar Sultanate, The Mughals, and Adil Shah of Bijapur at different periods, attempted to establish his independent rule.
- Shivaji, his son, succeeded in establishing the Maratha Empire which he further expanded during the 18th century by the Bhat Family Peshwa based in Pune.
- The Marathas defeated the Mughals and conquered large territories in the northern and central parts of the Indian subcontinent.
- The British East India Company took over the rule of Mumbai in the early 17th century and the company expanded the area during the 18th century.
- After Indian independence, princely states and Jagirs of the Deccan states Agency were merged into Bombay state which in 1950, formed the former Bombay Presidency.
Maharashtra: Things you need to know
- The capital of Maharashtra is Mumbai.
- The Chief Minister of Maharashtra Eknath Shinde and the Governor is Bhagat Singh Koshyari.
- The largest city in Maharashtra is Mumbai.
- The state was formed on 1 May 1960.
- The official language of Maharashtra is Marathi.
- The area of Maharashtra is 307,713 Km2 and it ranks third by area in India.
- The state animal of Maharashtra is an Indian giant squirrel, the state tree is a mango tree, and the state flower is Jarul.