List of Important Dams in India
A dam is a physical obstruction that slows or restricts the flow of subsurface or surface water. Dams build reservoirs that serve multiple purposes, including flood control, irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability. Dams and hydropower are frequently combined to produce electricity. Water that can be equally divided between areas can be gathered or stored in a dam.
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While other structures, like floodgates or levees (also known as dikes), are used to control or prohibit water flow into particular geographical zones, dams typically serve the primary function of retaining water. The Jawa Dam in Jordan dates back to 3,000 BC and is the oldest known dam.
Let us have a look at the List of Important Dam in India.
Important Dams in India: About Dams
A dam is a physical obstruction that restricts water movement and creates a reservoir. Dams are typically constructed to use water to generate electricity. Hydroelectricity is the name given to this type of electricity. Dams build reservoirs that serve multiple purposes, including flood control, irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture, and navigability.
Important Dams in India: Types of Dams
Following are the types of Dams in India:
1. Types of Dams in India: Arch Dam
A concrete dam that curves upstream in the plan is called an arch dam. In order to reinforce the structure as it pushes against its foundation or abutments, it is constructed so that the hydrostatic pressure (force of the water against it) forces against the arch. This causes the arch to gently straighten. The ideal location for an arch dam is a tight canyon or gorge with steep, sturdy rock walls to sustain the construction and stresses.
2. Types of Dams in India: Gravity Dam
Gravity dams are dams made of concrete or stone masonry. They are made to resist the horizontal pressure of water pushing against them by solely employing the weight of the material and its resistance against the foundation. Each part of the dam is stable and independent from the others thanks to its thoughtful design.
3. Types of Dams in India: Arch-Gravity Dam
This dam combines the traits of a gravity dam with an arch dam. It is a dam that narrows as it turns upstream, directing the majority of the water pressure against the canyon’s rock walls. The lateral (horizontal) force pressing on the dam is lessened by the water’s inward compression of the dam.
4. Types of Dams in India: Barrages
Several enormous gates that may be opened or closed to regulate the volume of water moving through make up a barrage, a form of low-head, diversion dam. As a result, the structure may control and maintain the elevation of the river upstream for use in irrigation and other systems.
5. Types of Dams in India: Embankment Dams
A substantial man-made dam is an embankment dam. It is often made by placing and compacting a complicated semi-plastic mound made of different soil, sand, clay, or rock compositions. It features a solid, impermeable core and a natural waterproof covering that is semi-permeable.
6. Types of Dams in India: Rock-Fills Dams
Embankments of compacted, freely draining granular earth with an impermeable zone are known as rock-fill dams. The term “rock-fill” refers to earth that has a significant proportion of big particles.
7. Types of Dams in India: Concrete-face rock-fill dams
A rock-fill dam with concrete slabs on its upstream face is known as a concrete-face rock-fill dam (CFRD). With this plan, the concrete slab serves as both an impervious wall to stop leaks and a structure without worry about uplift pressure.
8. Types of Dams in India: Earth-fill dams
A well-compacted earth embankment is used to build earth-fill dams, often known as earthen dams, rolled-earth dams, or simply earth dams. A homogeneous rolled-earth dam is made entirely of one material, yet it might also have a drain layer to catch leak water.
Important Dams in India: Interesting Facts
Here are the interesting facts about Dams in India
Highest Dam in India: Tehri Dam(Uttarakhand)
- The Tehri Dam is the tallest dam in India and ranks 12th in the world in terms of height with a height of 260.5 m (855 ft).
- It is India’s largest hydroelectric power project, with a total planned installed capacity of 2400 MW.
- It is a multi-use rock and earth-fill embankment dam on the Bhagirathi River in the Indian state of Uttarakhand’s Tehri Garhwal district.
- It serves as the main dam for both the Tehri hydropower complex and THDC India Ltd.
- The first stage was finished in 2006.
- A reservoir for agriculture, urban water supply, and the production of 1,000 megawatts (1,300,000 hp) of hydroelectricity is kept in place by the Tehri Dam.
- The 1,000 MW variable-speed pumped-storage system for the dam is currently being built, with the first two units projected to be operational in 2023.
Longest Dam in India: Hirakud Dam (Odisha)
- In the Indian state of Odisha, Hirakud Dam is situated across the Mahanadi River, roughly 15 kilometres (9 miles) from Sambalpur.
- It is the world’s longest earthen dam.
- The 55 km (34 km) long Hirakud Reservoir is a lake that stretches behind the dam.
- One of the earliest significant multipurpose river valley projects to be undertaken in India since its independence.
- On October 12, 2021, Hirakud Reservoir was designated as a Ramsar site.
Oldest Dam in India: Kallanai Dam (Tamil Nadu)
- Kallanai, often referred to as the Grand Anicut, is a historic dam that was constructed in 150 CE by Karikala of the Chola dynasty.
- It is constructed (in running water) spanning the Kaveri River in Tamil Nadu, India, which runs from Tiruchirapalli District to Thanjavur District.
- The district of Thanjavur contains the dam. situated 45 kilometres from Tanjavur and 15 kilometres from Tiruchirapalli.
- The oldest in India that is still in use, it is the fourth-oldest water diversion or water-regulator structure in the entire globe.
- It is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Tamil Nadu due to its magnificent architecture.
List of Important Dams in India
Following is the list of Important Dams in India:
|Important Dams in India||State of Important Dam in India||River|
|Bhavani Sagar dam||Tamil Nadu||Bhavani|
|Rihand Dam||Uttar Pradesh||Rihand|
|Mettur Dam||Tamil Nadu||Kaveri|
|Indira Sagar Dam||Madhya Pradesh||Narmada|
|Sardar Sarovar Dam||Gujarat||Narmada|
|Nagarjuna Sagar Dam||Telangana||Krishna|
|Bhakra Nangal Dam||Punjab-Himachal Pradesh Border||Sutlej|