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UNDP’s human development index: India ranks 132 out of 191 countries

UNDP's human development index: India ranks 132 out of 191 countries_50.1

A report on the 2021 Human Development Index (HDI) is part of the Human Development Report 2021-2022 released by the United Nations Development Programme. The HDI measures the average achievement of a country in three basic dimensions of human development — a long and healthy life, education and a decent standard of living. It is calculated using four indicators — life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling, expected years of schooling, and the Gross National Income (GNI) per capita.

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UNDP’s human development index: Notably

  • For the first time on record, the global Human Development Index (HDI) has dropped for two years in a row, taking the world back to just after the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Paris Agreement.
  • Every year a few countries face declines on the HDI, but over 90 per cent of countries saw their HDI value drop in either 2020 or 2021.
  • Furthermore, while only a third of very high HDI countries saw a decline in 2021 (compared with over 90 per cent in 2020), about 60 per cent of low and medium HDI and high HDI countries did (in 2021)”, the report notes.

Indian Scenario:

India ranked 132nd among 191 countries and territories on the 2021 Human Development Index (HDI). In the 2020 report, India had ranked 131st among 189 countries and territories. The decline in the country’s performance from its previous level was on account of a fall in life expectancy.

Key points: 

  • India’s latest HDI value of 0.633 places the country in the medium human development category, lower than its value of 0.645 in the 2020 report. The report attributes the drop in HDI from 0.645 in 2019 to 0.633 in 2021 to India’s falling life expectancy — from 69.7 years to 67.2 years during the survey period.
  • India’s expected years of schooling stand at 11.9 years, down from 12.2 years in the 2020 report, although the mean years of schooling is up at 6.7 years from 6.5 years in the 2020 report.
  • Although India retained its 132nd position in the Gender Development Index, the female life expectancy dropped from 71 years in the 2020 report to 68.8 years in the 2021 report.
  • The mean years of schooling for females declined from 12.6 to 11.9 years in the corresponding period.
  • India scored 0.123 in the Multi-Dimensional Poverty Index (MPI) with a headcount ratio of 27.9 per cent, with 8.8 per cent population reeling under severe multidimensional poverty. Over the last decade, India has lifted a staggering 271 million out of multidimensional poverty, the report noted.

Asian Countries:

Among India’s neighbours, Sri Lanka (73rd), China (79th), Bangladesh (129th), and Bhutan (127th) are ranked above India, while Pakistan (161st), Nepal (143rd), and Myanmar (149th) are worse off. The report said around 90 per cent of countries registered a decline in their HDI value in 2020 or in 2021.

2021 Human Development Index: Top and Important countries in the list

HDI rank Country HDI Value 2021
1 Switzerland 0.962
2 Norway 0.961
3 Iceland 0.959
4 Hong Kong, China (SAR) 0.952
5 Australia 0.951
6 Denmark 0.948
7 Sweden 0.947
8 Ireland 0.945
9 Germany 0.942
10 Netherlands 0.941
18 United Kingdom 0.929
19 Japan 0.925
21 United States 0.921
79 China 0.768
132 India 0.633

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UNDP's human development index: India ranks 132 out of 191 countries_60.1

UNDP's human development index: India ranks 132 out of 191 countries_70.1

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