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World Malaria Report 2023: Malaria Cases Surge To 249 Million In 2022, 16 Million Above Pre-Pandemic Levels

 

Despite efforts to expand access to prevention measures, a new WHO report reveals a concerning trend: malaria cases globally rose to 249 million in 2022, surpassing pre-pandemic levels by 16 million.

Threats to Malaria Response

The global malaria response faces numerous challenges, including COVID-19 disruptions, drug and insecticide resistance, humanitarian crises, resource constraints, and climate change impacts. These factors particularly affect high-burden countries.

Climate Change Nexus Explored

The 2023 World Malaria Report investigates the intricate relationship between climate change and malaria. Temperature, humidity, and rainfall changes influence the behavior of malaria-carrying mosquitoes, and extreme weather events directly impact disease transmission.

Climate-Induced Events and Malaria

Catastrophic events, like the 2022 flooding in Pakistan, resulted in a five-fold increase in malaria cases. WHO Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus emphasizes the substantial risk climate change poses to malaria progress, calling for resilient responses.

Disruptions and Indirect Effects

Climate variability indirectly affects malaria trends by disrupting essential services and supply chains for preventive measures. Population displacement due to climate-induced factors may elevate malaria cases as individuals without immunity migrate to endemic areas.

COVID-19 Impact and Global Trends

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted malaria services, causing a surge in cases. Five million additional malaria cases in 2022, with Pakistan facing the largest increase, indicate a setback in achieving the WHO global malaria strategy’s 2025 milestones.

Challenges in High-Burden Countries

While rates in high-burden countries leveled off, they remain a concern. The “High burden to high impact” approach faced challenges such as limited healthcare access, ongoing conflicts, and the lingering effects of COVID-19.

Achievements and Vaccination Progress

The report acknowledges achievements, including the first WHO-recommended malaria vaccine, RTS,S/AS01, showing substantial reductions in severe malaria and childhood deaths. The recent recommendation of a second vaccine, R21/Matrix-M, aims to increase supply for broad-scale deployment.

Progress Toward Malaria Elimination

Several countries with a low burden of malaria reported progress toward elimination. WHO-certified malaria-free countries in 2022 include Azerbaijan, Belize, and Tajikistan. However, a significant pivot with increased resources, political commitment, and innovation is needed.

Call for Sustainable Responses

In the face of climate change threats, the report emphasizes the necessity for sustainable and resilient malaria responses. Whole-of-society engagement is crucial to building integrated approaches that address the diverse challenges hindering progress against malaria.

Important Questions Related to Exams

Q. How many malaria cases were reported globally in 2022, and how does this compare to pre-pandemic levels?

Answer: 249 million cases, exceeding pre-pandemic levels by 16 million.

Q. What are some of the challenges faced by the global malaria response, as highlighted in the report?

Answer: Challenges include COVID-19 disruptions, drug and insecticide resistance, humanitarian crises, resource constraints, and climate change impacts, particularly in high-burden countries.

Q. What achievements are acknowledged in the report, specifically related to malaria vaccines?

Answer: The report acknowledges the phased roll-out of the first WHO-recommended malaria vaccine, RTS,S/AS01, and the recent recommendation of a second vaccine, R21/Matrix-M.

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