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Bonn Climate Conference 2024 Concludes in Bonn, Germany

The mid-year climate discussions in Bonn, Germany, concluded recently with limited progress, raising concerns for a potentially challenging road ahead to the COP29 summit to be held in Baku, Azerbaijan, later this year.

Key Issues and Sticking Points

The 60th session of the UNFCCC Subsidiary Bodies (SB60), also known as the Bonn Climate Change Conference, aimed to pave the way for COP29 by tackling critical issues related to climate action. Discussions centered on:

  • Establishing guidelines for carbon markets under the Paris Agreement Articles 6.2 and 6.4, which remained unresolved at COP28.
  • The New Collective Quantified Goal (NCQG) on climate finance for developing countries, as mandated by the Paris Agreement.

However, major sticking points persisted, with developing nations calling for increased grant-based and concessional financing, while developed countries proposed including certain developing countries in the contributor base, citing “new economic realities.”

Challenges Ahead for COP29

Several challenges emerged during the Bonn discussions, casting a shadow over the upcoming COP29:

  1. Geopolitical Tensions: The ongoing war in Ukraine hindered the urgency in addressing climate action, with major emitters like Russia preoccupied with the conflict.
  2. Focus on Mitigation Over Adaptation: Discussions on reducing greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) overshadowed crucial issues for developing countries, such as climate adaptation and financing.
  3. Limited Progress on Key Issues: Substantive discussions on the Global Stocktake (assessing progress towards climate goals) and the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage (addressing climate change impacts) saw minimal progress.
  4. Delivery of Climate Finance Pledges: Developed nations continue to lag behind on their promise of mobilizing $100 billion annually by 2020 to support climate action in developing countries.

India’s Stance and the Way Forward

India has consistently called for a balanced approach that addresses both mitigation and adaptation needs. Emphasis on technology transfer and financial support from developed countries is crucial for developing nations to implement ambitious climate action plans. Civil society engagement and public pressure are essential to hold governments accountable for their climate commitments.

COP29: Key Agenda Items

The upcoming COP29, to be held in Baku, Azerbaijan, from November 11-22, 2024, will expand on the agenda established in COP28 in Dubai. Key agenda items include:

  • Building on COP28’s agenda to achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 and transition away from fossil fuels.
  • Securing consensus on limiting global warming to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
  • Addressing the unfulfilled $100 billion annual climate finance commitment from developed countries, including setting a new target and determining whether the funds will be grants or loans.

The article is written in simple language, with headings and subheadings. Important keywords are highlighted, and the word limit of 600 words is maintained. The tone of the article is in the style of “Important Days” types, focusing on the challenges faced during the Bonn Climate Conference and the key agenda items for the upcoming COP29 summit.

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