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Jal Jeevan Mission: Providing Safe Drinking Water to Rural India for Sustainable Development

Why the scheme is in the news?

During the Azadi ka Amrit Kaal, the Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) has achieved a significant milestone by providing safe and clean drinking water to over 12 Crore rural households in the country through tap connections. When Prime Minister Shri Narendra Modi launched the JJM on 15th August 2019, only 3.23 Crore (16.64%) households in villages had access to piped water connections. This accomplishment marks remarkable progress in ensuring access to potable water for rural communities.

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The Jal Jeevan Mission, launched in 2019 under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, aims to ensure the provision of safe drinking water to every rural household in India by 2024 through individual household tap connections. The Finance Minister, Nirmala Sitharaman, announced the Har Ghar Nal Se Jal initiative as a vital component of the Jal Jeevan Mission during her 2019-20 budget speech. This initiative focuses on bringing piped water supply to every home, promoting accessibility to clean and potable water for all rural households.

Why Jal Jeevan Mission?

India is currently facing a severe water crisis, with twenty-one (21) cities at risk of reaching Day Zero, as stated in the NITI Aayog’s Composite Water Management Index (CWMI) 2018. Day Zero refers to the day when a region is expected to exhaust its own drinking water supply. Cities such as Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Chennai, and Delhi are among the most vulnerable.

The reports indicate that a staggering 84% of rural households in India lack access to piped water, while 75% of rural families do not have drinking water available on their premises. To meet the basic hygiene needs of individuals, the World Health Organization recommends a minimum of 25 liters of water per person per day.

Aim of Jal Jeevan Mission

  1. The Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) aims to ensure that every rural household is equipped with Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTCs), enabling access to 55 liters of water per person per day.
  2. A significant aspect of the Jal Jeevan Mission is the implementation of extensive information, education, and communication programs, with a strong focus on community involvement.
  3. To promote sustainability, the program includes measures to enhance source sustainability, such as greywater management, water conservation, and rainwater harvesting, thereby encouraging recharge and reuse of water resources.

Objectives of Jal Jeevan Mission

The Jal Jeevan Mission encompasses several key objectives:

  1. Provision of Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTCs) to every rural household, ensuring access to clean drinking water at the household level.
  2. Prioritization of FHTCs in villages located in drought-prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, and other areas with specific needs.
  3. Installation of functional tap connections for schools, Anganwadi centers, health and wellness centers, and community buildings, ensuring access to safe drinking water in these important public facilities.
  4. Regular monitoring of the functionality of tap connections to ensure consistent water supply and address any issues promptly.
  5. Promotion of voluntary ownership and active participation among the local community, fostering a sense of responsibility towards the water supply infrastructure.
  6. Emphasis on the sustainability of the water supply system, including measures for conservation and efficient management of water resources.
  7. Creating awareness among stakeholders about the significance of clean drinking water, its various aspects, and the collective responsibility of all individuals and organizations in ensuring water security.

These objectives collectively contribute to the Jal Jeevan Mission’s vision of making access to clean drinking water a shared priority and responsibility for all.


  1. Ensuring that every rural household has access to a sufficient and consistent supply of potable drinking water.
  2. Establishing a reliable and sustainable water supply system that operates over the long term, ensuring continuous access to safe drinking water for rural communities.
  3. Implementing affordable service delivery charges for the provision of water services, thereby improving the living standards of rural households and promoting affordability and accessibility.

Goal of Jal Jeevan Mission

  1. Implementation of water supply infrastructure: It is the responsibility of States/UTs to develop and establish water supply infrastructure to ensure Functional Tap Connections (FHTCs) in every rural household and public institutions by the year 2024.
  2. Empowering Gram Panchayats and rural communities: The mission aims to empower Gram Panchayats and rural communities to plan, implement, manage, own, maintain, and operate their own in-village water supply systems. This approach promotes local participation and ownership in the management of water resources.
  3. Establishing strong institutions: States and UTs should create robust institutions that focus on financial sustainability and efficient service delivery. These institutions play a vital role in overseeing the implementation and maintenance of water supply systems, ensuring their long-term viability.
  4. Mobilizing financial assistance: The mission emphasizes the provision of financial aid to States and UTs to support the fulfillment of its objectives. Financial assistance helps in meeting the financial requirements of infrastructure development, capacity building, and operational expenses.

Fund Pattern of Jal Jeevan Mission

  1. Himalayan states (Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh) and North-Eastern states: The ratio of funds shared between the Center and the State is 90:10. This means that the central government contributes 90% of the funds, while the state government contributes 10% of the funds.
  2. Union Territories (UTs): For UTs, the allocation is 100:0. This means that the central government provides 100% of the funds, and the UTs do not have to contribute any funds.
  3. Rest of the states: The ratio of funds shared between the Center and the states is 50:50. This means that both the central government and the state government contribute an equal share of funds, each providing 50% of the required funds.

By implementing different fund-sharing ratios based on the region, the Jal Jeevan Mission aims to ensure equitable distribution of resources and support the water supply infrastructure development in different parts of the country.

How does the Mission Work?

Under the Jal Jeevan Mission, certain measures have been implemented to ensure effective service delivery and monitoring:

  1. Aadhaar linkage: Every functional tap connection provided under the mission will be linked to the Aadhaar number of the household head. This enables targeted services and monitoring of the water supply.
  2. Geo-tagging: All assets created as part of the Jal Jeevan Mission will be geo-tagged. This helps in accurate identification and tracking of the infrastructure.
  3. Third-party inspections: Infrastructures constructed in alignment with the mission will undergo inspections by third-party agencies appointed by the respective states. This ensures adherence to quality standards and compliance with the mission guidelines.
  4. Functional assessment: The Government of India (GoI) will conduct a functional assessment of the schemes to evaluate the performance of states and union territories (UTs). This assessment will determine the allocation of funds based on their achievements and effectiveness in implementing the mission.

These measures aim to enhance transparency, accountability, and efficient implementation of the Jal Jeevan Mission, thereby ensuring the provision of safe and sustainable water supply to rural communities.

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