Constitution of India: Important Articles
The constitution of India begins with a short statement of its basic values. The Constitution of India contains the philosophy on which our country has been built. It provides a standard to examine and evaluates any law and action of the government to find out whether it is good or bad, it can be said that preamble is the soul of the Indian constitution.
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India is the largest democracy in the world and the constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950. A constitution is a set of rules and regulations through which a country is governed. In the Indian constitution, there are 448 articles, 25 parts, 12 schedules, and 104 amendments. The parts of the constitution have various articles which discuss the sections of constitutional bodies’ fundamental rights legislatures executive branches and schedules.
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Parts and articles of the constitution of India
|Parts of the constitution articles
||Articles and Definition
|| Subjects of the parts
- Article 1- Name and territory of the union
- Article 2- Admission and establishment of the new state.
- Article 3- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and names of existing states.
- Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution
- Article 6 – Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan
- Article 10 – Continuance of rights of citizenship
- Article 11 – Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law
- Article 12 – Definition of the state
- Article 13 – Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights
- Article 14 – Equality before the law.
- Article 15 – Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth.
- Article 16 – Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
- Article 17 – Abolition of the untouchability.
- Article 18 – Abolition of titles.
- Article 19 – Guarantees to all the citizens the six rights and they are:
a – Freedom of speech and expression.
b – Freedom to assemble peaceably and without arms.
c – Freedom to form associations or unions.
d – Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India.
e – Freedom to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
f – Omitted
g – Freedom to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade, or business.
- Article 20 – Protection in respect of conviction for offenses.
- Article 21 – Protection of life and personal liberty.
- Article 22 – Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
- Article 23 – Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labor.
- Article 24 – Prohibition of employment of children (Under the age of 14) in factories and mines.
- Article 25 – Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice, and propagation of religion.
- Article 26 – Freedom to manage religious affairs.
- Article 27 – Freedom as to pay taxes for the promotion of any particular religion.
- Article 28 – Freedom from attending religious instruction.
- Article 29 – Protection of interest of minorities.
- Article 30 – Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
- Article 32 – Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
- Article 36 – Definition
- Article 37– Application of DPSP
- Article 39A – Equal justice and free legal aid
- Article 40 – Organization of a village panchayat
- Article 41 – Right to work, education, and public assistance in certain cases
- Article 43 – Living Wages, etc. for workers.
- Article 43A – Participation of workers in the management of industries.
- Article 44 – Uniform civil code.
- Article 45 – Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
- Article 46 – Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes (SC), scheduled tribes (ST), and OBC.
- Article 47– Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
- Article 48 – Organization of agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Article 49 – Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
- Article 50 – Separation of judiciary from the executive.
- Article 51 – Promotion of international peace and security.
|Part IV A
||It shall be the duty of every citizen of India
(a) to abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag, and the National Anthem;
(b) to cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
(c) to uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India;
(d) to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
(e) to promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic, and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
(f) to value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
(g) to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wildlife, and to have compassion for living creatures;
(h) to develop the scientific temper, humanism, and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
(i) to safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
(j) to strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavor and achievement
- Article 52 – The President of India
- Article 53 – Executive Power of the union
- Article 54 – Election of President
- Article 61 – Procedure for Impeachment of the President
- Article 63 – The Vice–president of India
- Article 64 – The Vice–President to be ex–officio chairman of n the council of States
- Article 66 – Election of Vice–president
- Article 72 – Pardoning powers of President
- Article 74 – Council of ministers to aid and advise President
- Article 76 – Attorney–General for India
- Article 79 – Constitution of Parliament
- Article 80 – Composition of Rajya Sabha
- Article 81 – Composition of Lok Sabha
- Article 83 – Duration of Houses of Parliament
- Article 93 – The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people
- Article 105 – Powers, Privileges, etc. of the House of Parliament
- Article 109 – Special procedure concerning money bills
- Article 110 – Definition of “Money Bills”
- Article 112 – Annual Financial Budget
- Article 114 –Appropriation Bills
- Article 123 – Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament
- Article 124 – Establishment of Supreme Court
- Article 125 – Salaries of Judges
- Article 126 – Appointment of acting Chief justice
- Article 127 – Appointment of ad–hoc judges
- Article 128 –Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court
- Article 129 – Supreme Court to be a court of Record
- Article 130 – Seat of the Supreme Court
- Article 136 – Special leaves for an appeal to the Supreme Court
- Article 137 – Review of judgment or orders by the Supreme Court
- Article 141 – Decision of the Supreme Court of India binding on all the courts
- Article 148 – Comptroller and Auditor–General of India
- Article 149 – Duties and Powers of CAG
- Article 153 – Governors of State
- Article 154 – Executive Powers of Governor
- Article 161 – Pardoning powers of the Governor
- Article 165 – Advocate–General of the State
- Article 213 – Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances
- Article 214 – High Courts for states
- Article 215 – High Courts to be a court of record
- Article 226 – Power of High Courts to issue certain writs
- Article 233 – Appointment of District judges
- Article 235 – Control over Subordinate Courts
||7th Amendment Act
- Article 239 – Administration of Union territories.
- Article 239A – Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.
- Article 239AA – Special provisions concerning Delhi.
- Article 239AB – Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.
- Article 239B – Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.
- Article 240 – Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories.
- Article 241 – High Courts for Union territories.
- Article 242 – Coorg
- Article 243A – Gram Sabha
- Article 243B – Constitution of Panchayats
- Article 243P – Definitions.
- Article 243Q – Constitution of Municipalities.
- Article 243R – Composition of Municipalities.
- Article 243S – Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc.
- Article 243T – Reservation of seats.
- Article 243U – Duration of Municipalities, etc.
- Article 243V -Disqualifications for membership.
- Article 243W – Powers, authority, and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.
- Article 243X – Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities.
- Article 243Y – Finance Commission.
- Article 243Z – Audit of accounts of Municipalities.
- Article 243ZA – Elections to the Municipalities.
- Article 243ZB – Application to Union territories.
- Article 243ZC – Part not to apply to certain areas.
- Article 243ZD – Committee for district planning.
- Article 243ZE – Committee for Metropolitan planning.
- Article 243ZF – Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities.
- Article 243ZG – Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters.
|Part IX B
- Article 243ZH – Definitions.
- Article 243ZI – Incorporation of co-operative societies.
- Article 243ZJ – Number and term of members of the board and its office bearers.
- Article 243ZK – Election of members of the board.
- Article 243ZL – Supersession and suspension of the board and interim management.
- Article 243ZM – Audit of accounts of cooperative societies.
- Article 243ZN – Convening of general body meetings.
- Article 243ZO – Right of a member to get information.
- Article 243ZP – Returns.
- Article 243ZQ – Offences and penalties.
- Article 243ZR – Application to multi-State co-operative societies.
- Article 243ZS – Application to Union territories.
- Article 243ZT – Continuance of existing laws.
- Article 244- Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas
|Scheduled Tribe areas
- Article 245 – Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
- Article 246 – Subject matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States.
- Article 246A – Special provision concerning goods and services tax.
- Article 247 – Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts.
- Article 248 – Residuary powers of legislation.
- Article 249 – Power of Parliament to legislate concerning a matter in the State List in the national interest.
- Article 250 – Power of Parliament to legislate concerning any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation.
- Article 251 – Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States.
- Article 252 – Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State.
- Article 253 – Legislation for giving effect to international agreements.
- Article 254 – Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States.
- Article 255 – Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only.
- Article 256 – Obligation of States and the Union.
- Article 257 – Control of the Union over States in certain cases.
- Article 257A – Assistance to States by the deployment of armed forces or other forces of the Union.
- Article 258 – Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases.
- Article 258A – Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.
- Article 259 – Armed Forces in States in Part B of the First Schedule.
- Article 260 – Jurisdiction of the Union about territories outside India.
- Article 261 – Public acts, records, and judicial proceedings.
- Article 262 – Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys.
- Article 263 – Provisions concerning an inter-State Council.
|Relation of Union and states
- Article 266 – Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
- Article 267 – Contingency Fund of India
- Article 280 – Finance Commission
- Article 300 A – Right to property
|Properties, finance, suits, and contracts
- Article 301 – Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse
- Article 302 – Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.
|Trade, commerce, and communication between the territories of India
- Article 312 – All– India–Service
· Article 315 – Public service commissions for the union and the states
- Article 320 – Functions of Public Service Commission
|Services under the union and states
|Part XIV A
- Article 323A – Administrative Tribunals
- Article 324 – Superintendence, direction, and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission
- Article 325 – No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex
- Article 326 – Elections to the house of the people and the legislative assemblies of states to be based on adult suffrage
- Article 338 – National Commission for the SC & ST
- Article 340 – Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes special
|Special provisions for certain classes
- Article 343 – Official languages of the Union
- Article 345 – Official languages or languages of a state
- Article 348 – Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and the High Courts
- Article 351 – Directive for development of the Hindi languages
- Article 352 – Proclamation of emergency (National Emergency)
- Article 356 – State Emergency (President’s Rule)
- Article 360 – Financial Emergency
- Article 361 – Protection of President and Governors
- Article 368 – Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution amendment
|Amendment of constitution
- Article 370 – Temporary Provision for the erstwhile State of J&K
- Article 371 A – Special provision concerning the State of Nagaland
- Article 371 J – Special Status for Hyderabad–Karnataka region
|Temporary and special provision
- Article 393 –This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India
|Commencement, Authoritative text in Hindi
Also Read: Important Articles of the Indian Constitution
Constitution Day Of India: History And Significance
FAQs related to the constitution of India
1. What are the parts of the Indian constitution?
Ans. 25 parts of the Indian constitution have various articles under them, and it discusses fundamental rights, directive principles, States, unions, elections, and miscellaneous subjects.
2. Under which article of the constitution of India are the fundamental rights mentioned?
Ans. The fundamental rights are mentioned in article 12 and article 35 of the Indian constitution.
3. What is article one of the Indian Constitution?
Ans. Article one of the constitutions of India state that the territories of India shall consist of the state territories union territories and any territory that is required in the future
4. What is the significance of the Indian Constitution 2022?
Ans. The Constitution of India contains the philosophy on which our country has been built. It provides a standard to examine and evaluates any law and action of the government.
5. How many articles are there in the Indian Constitution?
Ans. In the Indian Constitution, there are 448 articles, 25 parts, 12 schedules, and 104 amendments.
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